Why do animals form swarms? – Maria R. D’Orsogna

When many individual organisms come together and move as one entity, that’s a swarm. From a handful of birds to billions of insects, swarms can be almost any size. They have no leader, and members interact only with their neighbors or through indirect cues. Members follow simple rules: travel in the same direction as those around you, stay close and avoid collisions. Maria R. D’Orsogna shares why.

Should You Let A Dog Lick Your Face?

Canine and human mouths are bacterial ecosystems, but can they harm one another? “Sometimes, the oral contact between dogs and their owners can be more extensive than that between parent and child. Dogs kiss and lick their owners to express amiable emotions. This raises the possibility of transferring bacteria from the oral microbiome of dogs to their human owners.”